Hemorrhage: Causes and Effects
Hemorrhage is the escape of blood from a blood vessel or the heart. In rupture of the wall of a vessel, hemostatic mechanisms start to control the hemorrhage. A small hemorrhage may have no bad effect but an acute massive hemorrhage threatens the life.
Chronic blood loss produces an iron-deficiency anemia. Hemorrhage may be local or systematic. Systematic hemorrhages occur in hemorhhagic (bleeding) disorders.
Causes of Acute Hemorrhage
Effect of Acute Hemorrhage
The effects depend on the amount and rate of blood loss. A loss of 500 ml (about 10%) of blood has practically has no effect. Sudden acute massive hemorrhage of 1250 ml (about 25%) blood causes shock and a loss of 500 ml may be fetal unless treated. Outcome of a sudden hemorrhage is shown in the following diagram:
Response after Acute Hemorrhage
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