Why Is Pyruvate a Key Juncture in Metabolism?

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Pyruvate is a three-carbon molecule that is produced during the breakdown of glucose in a process called glycolysis. It a vital molecule in cellular metabolism, serving as a key juncture that connects various metabolic pathways. Derived from glucose during glycolysis, pyruvate plays a crucial role in energy production, serving as a gateway to both aerobic … Read more

Cell Differentiation: Definition and Importance

Why Cell Differentiation Is So Important

Cell differentiation is the process by which a single cell splits into two different cells. In other words, it’s how we grow from a zygote to a human being. Differentiation is important for all living things because it ensures that each body part has the right number of cells and that no one cell gets … Read more

Epithelium: Definition, Characteristics, Types and Functions

The animal body consists of the some elementary tissues.  The tissue which forms a limiting and lining membrane (epithelial membrane) and covers the free surface of an organ is known as epithelial tissue or epithelium. Characteristics of Epithelium Classification of Epithelium According to the functions, the epithelial tissues are mainly classified into the following two … Read more

Cilia and Flagella: Structure and Functions

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The hair-like extended portion of the cell surface bounded by the cell membrane and containing microtubules and responsible for cell motility are known as cilia and flagella. The cilia and flagella are widely distributed in both the animal and plant cells. Flagella (singular = flagellum) are complex filamentous, long, thread-like structures that extend from the … Read more

Mitosis: Definition, Stages of Mitosis and its Significance

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The old cells divide to produce new cells. In this case, a single old cell divides into two cells and these two new cells again divide to produce four cells and so on. Generally, this process is known as cell division where a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. The capability of … Read more

RNA: Definition, Types, Structure and Functions

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Johannes Friedrich Miescher (a Swiss physician and biologist) first discovered the Nucleic acids as ‘nuclein’ from the nucleus in 1869. Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (a Spanish-American physician and biochemist) discovered the RNA synthesis mechanism in 1959. He won the Nobel Prize jointly with Arthur Kornberg in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries. In 1965, Robert … Read more