Chromosome: Types, Structure and Functions

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The term ‘chromosome’ is consisted of two Greek words ‘Chroma’ and ‘soma’ which means color body.  The chromosomes have gene bearing rod-shaped form. It is generally found in the nucleus which becomes visible during the cell division. The chromosomes also bears hereditary information.  In 1942, Karl Nagli observed the rod-like chromosome in the nucleus of … Read more

Cilia and Flagella: Structure and Functions

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The hair-like extended portion of the cell surface bounded by the cell membrane and containing microtubules and responsible for cell motility are known as cilia and flagella. The cilia and flagella are widely distributed in both the animal and plant cells. Flagella (singular = flagellum) are complex filamentous, long, thread-like structures that extend from the … Read more

Microtubules: Structure and Functions

Non-membranous tubules are present in the eukaryotic cell`s cytoplasm. These tubules are hollow and ultrafine and their number is numerous in the cytoplasm. These tubules are made up of protein, known as tubulin which maintains the cell shape and plays an important role in the movement. Other proteins like Kinesin and dynein are also found … Read more

Cytoplasmic Inclusions

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The contents of the cell between the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope are known as cytoplasm. It is a gel-like clear substance that contains living and non-living materials such as water, enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules. Among them, organelles form the living inclusions, and non-living substances form cytoplasmic inclusions. These substances do not … Read more

Cell Related Terms and Definitions

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Biology: Biology is a branch of science which deals with the study of living organisms. Cytology: Cytology or cell biology is the study of the structure and function of the cell. Cell: Cell is the functional and fundamental unit of life. Cellular Respiration: Cellular respiration is a process by which cells produce the energy that … Read more

DNA : Its Structure and Functions

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DNA is also known as deoxyribonucleic acid. German biochemist Frederich Miescher first observed DNA in 1869. He termed the material nuclein, which he isolated from pus cells that he collected from bandages discarded by a nearby clinic. Frederick Griffith realized that DNA might hold genetic information in 1928. Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin figured out the double helix … Read more