Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

On the basis of internal structure, cells are of two types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are simple and small in size while eukaryotic cells are complex and large in size. Eukaryotic cells have true nucleus and nucleolus with different types of membrane-bound cell organelles such as Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, Mitochondria etc. Well defined nucleus is absent in prokaryotic cell but it contains DNA molecule which is placed in the cell, known as nucleoid. Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are stated in the following table:

Features

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

1. Structure

Simple, usually unicellular;

Complex, usually multi-cellular, some cyanobacteria may be multicellular);

2. Size

Smaller; 0.5 –10 µm in diameter;

Larger; 10.0-100 µm in diameter;

3. Plasma membrane or      Plasmalemma

Present, generally contains no sterols;

Present, contains sterols;

4. Cell wall

Generally present, composes of peptidoglycan or mucopeptide (polysaccharide);

Absent in animal cells, present in plant cells; composes of cellulose (polysaccharide).

5. Capsule

Present, made up of mucopolysachharide;

Absent;

6. Cytoplasm

Present;

Present;

7. Endoplasmic reticulum

Absent;

Present;

8. Mitochondria

Absent;

Present;

9. Golgy body

Absent;

Present;

10. Chloroplast

Absent; in some prokaryotic cell, chromatophores are present;

Present in plant cell;

Present; two parts but both are small;

Present; two parts, large and small;

12. Lysosomes and          peroxisomes

Absent;

Present;

13. Nucleus

Absent; but contains central component known as nucleoid;

Present; contains true nucleus;

14. Nuclear membrane

Absent;

Present;

15. Nucleoli

Absent;

Present;

16. Chromosomes and its number

Present; single in the nucleiod;

Present; multiple in number;

17. DNA

Present but naked;

Present but complex with protein;

18. Shape of DNA

Circular, double-stranded DNA;

Linear, double-stranded DNA;

19. Exocytosis and endocytosis

Absent;

Present;

20. Cell division

Amitosis, simple fission;

Mitosis and meiosis;

21. Transcription and Translation

They occur together;

Transcription occurs in the nucleus while translation occurs in cytosol (intracellular fluid or cytoplasmic matrix);

22. Flagella

It is simple in structure and composes of protein, flagellin.

Complex with 9+2 structure; composes of tubulin and other protein;

23. Vacuoles

Present;

Present;

24. Pinocytosis

Absent;

Present;

25. Microtubules

Absent or rare;

Present;

26. Example

Animals and plants

image of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cell

Image showing Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

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