Difference between Lysosome and Ribosome

A cell contains different types of cell organelles which perform different roles within the cell and they help in the survival of living organisms. As cell organelles, lysosomes and ribosomes carry out different functions in the cell. Lysosomes are found only in eukaryotic cells but ribosomes are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

image of lysosome

Image showing diagram of lysosome

Lysosomes are the membrane-bounded cell organelle which contains different types of digestive enzymes. It is also known as the garbage disposal system of cells which destroy unwanted garbage materials from the cell. Lysosomes are capable of degrading all types of polymers of the cell because they contain an array of digestive enzymes.

Image of lysosome and phagocytosis

Lysosme and Phagocytocys

Ribosomes are small in the structure which is made up of ribosomal RNA and proteins. It is considered as the protein-synthesizing machines of the cell that synthesize proteins from RNA molecules. The ribosome has two subunits. Prokaryotic cells contain 70S ribosomes which comprise of 50S and 30S subunits. In a eukaryotic cell, ribosomes are the 80S which contain the 40S and 60S subunits. The difference between ribosome and lysosome are stated in the following table:

image of ribosome

The Cell showing Ribosome

image of ribosome subunits

Ribosome Subunit

Lysosome

Ribosome

The lysosome is present in the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell only.

The ribosome is present in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.

The lysosome is larger in size than ribosome which ranges from  0.1 to 1.2 µm.

Ribosomes are typically smaller in size than lysosome which ranges 20 to 30 nm.

It is covered by a unit membrane i.e., it is membrane-bound organelle.

It is not covered by the membrane i.e., it is non-membranous organelle.

These are evenly and freely distributed throughout the cytoplasm.

These are freely distributed throughout the cytoplasm as well as these remain attached with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum etc.

It consists of a single part.

It consists of mainly two parts.

It is a minute spherical vesicle filled with hydrolytic enzymes and small vesicles.

It is a minute spherical structure of ribonucleoprotein and contains no vacuoles.

It always remains separate from each other.

Ribosomes are grouped together during protein synthesis and forms polyribosome.

Functionally it is of four types; Primary lysosome, secondary lysosome, residual body, and autophagosome.

According to size, the ribosomes are two types; 80S and 70S.

It is responsible for digestion of protein along with other substances of the cell.

It is responsible for the digestion of protein synthesis.

It is discovered by Cristian De Duve

It is discovered by George E. Palade.

It is made up of digestive enzymes and membrane proteins.

It made up of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins.

The lysosome contains a vast array of enzymes.

It does not contain an enzyme.

Functions of Ribosomes

  • They accumulate amino acid which forms specific proteins. These proteins are very essential for cellular activities in the living cells.
  • The proteins produced by ribosomes make building blocks for cellular structures;
  • It helps to build tissues and repair damage of tissues;
  • It produces enzymes which speed up the rate of chemical reactions;
  • Ribosomes produce proteins from messenger RNA (mRNA) by the process of translation. In this case, amino acids link together to form a protein.
  • Ribosomes are able to synthesize peptide strands at a rate of 200 per minute. In this case, it takes two or three hours for making a very large protein.

Functions of Lysosome

  • Hydrolase enzymes are present in the lysosome which capable of breaking down wastes and old cells.
  • Lysosomes are also known as ‘suicidal sac’ as their enzymes digest worn out cells.
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles which enclose their enzymes, thus this protects the rest of the cell.
  • Lysosomes contain different types of the enzyme such as include lipases, amylases, proteases, nucleases, etc which act on fats, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids.
  • Lysosomes are considered as a waste disposal system for the cell.
  • Some lysosomal enzymes help in the penetration of sperm into the vitelline layer of the ovum.
  • Lysosomes also help in cellular homeostasis, cell signaling, plasma membrane repair, and energy metabolism.
image of function of lysosome

Functions of Lysosome

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