The cell is the functional and structural unit of all living organisms. The eukaryotic cells are present both in the plants and animals. The cells have various shapes, sizes, and physiology. Each cell is composed of cell membrane, cytoplasm, different organelles , nucleus, and ergastic substances.
Cytoplasm is bounded by the plasma membrane and contains the live substances. These are semi-transparent, semi-fluid, granular, vacuolated, colorless and gel-like substances.
The main and matrix component of the cell is the cytoplasm where most of the metabolic activities occur. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is placed between the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope. They make the covering of the cell organelles. A membrane-bound nucleus separates the nucleus from the other parts of the cell. Cytoplasm makes up nine-tenths of the entire cell and contains all the cell organelles, solid non-living materials, salts, stored foods, pigments, organic acids, water, etc.
Composition of Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm contains the following compositions:
The cytoplasm is composed of three types of structures:
- 1The cytoplasmic matrix
- 2The cytoplasmic organelles and
- 3The cytoplasmic inclusions or ergastic substances.
1. The cytoplasmic matrix:
Cytoplasmic matrix is the homogeneous colloidal fluid. You will get the cytoplasmic matrix when you eliminate all organelles and cytoplasmic inclusion from the cell. It forms the most essential part of the cell because it provides the space for all biosynthetic and bioenergetic functions due to the presence of enzymes. The peripheral part of the matrix is comparatively non-granular, less viscous, clear and elastic in nature which is known as ectoplasm or ectoplast or plasmagel. The inner part of the matrix is granular and viscous, is known as endoplasm or endoplast. The thin layer of matrix present around the large vacuoles is known as tonoplasm or tonoplast.
2. The cytoplasmic organelles: Some specific small living organs are found in the cytoplasmic matrix of all eukaryotic cells that perform important specific functions in the cell metabolism, are known as cytoplasmic organelles.
Types of cytoplasmic organelles: There are different types of organelles, such as:
3. The cytoplasmic inclusions or ergastic substances: The cytoplasm of the cells contains a variety of non-living substances are known as ergastic substances or cytoplasmic inclusions. These substances are of three main groups:
Role of Cytoplasm
Cytosol is the part of cytoplasm which contains over 70% water and it bounds the all cell organelles. It is a water-based solution which also contains the varying size of soluble molecules, proteins, amino acids, mRNA, ribosomes, sugars, dissolved ions, etc.
Properties of cytosol
Functions of Cytosol
Some Important Differences Between Cytosol and Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is the gelatin-like, semi-transparent fluid which fills the cell.
Cytosol is the intra-cellular fluid which is placed inside the cells.
Cytoplasm is present between the cell membrane and nuclear envelope.
Cytosol is also found within the cell membrane and nuclear envelope.
It is the total content within the cell membrane and nuclear envelope.
Cytosol is the part of the cytoplasm that does not contain any of the organelles of the cell.
It contains all the cell organelles.
It contains concentration gradients, protein complexes, cytoskeletal sieving, protein compartments , etc.
Cytoplasm is composed of three chief elements such as cytosol, cell organelles and the cytoplasmic inclusions.
The fundamental compositions of cytosol are water, dissolved ions, smaller minute molecules, large water soluble molecules, and proteins.
Some important cellular activities such as cell division, glycolysis occur in cytoplasm.
In prokaryotic cells, all types of chemical reaction occur in cytosol.
Signal transduction, cytokinesis, nuclear division occur in the cytoplasm.
Molecules transportation and signal transduction occur in the cytosol.
The term cytosol was first coined by H.A. Lardy in 1965. The main and matrix component of the cell is the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is found inside the cell membrane which surrounds the nuclear envelope and the cytoplasmic organelles. It contains all the cell organelles, solid non-living materials, stored foods, organic acids, water, etc. The cell organelle less part of the cytoplasm is called cytomatrix or matrix or hyaloplasm. The central, granular mass in the cytoplasm is the endoplasm while the surrounding clear layer is known as the cell cortex or the ectoplasm.