Pollution and Pollutants: Causes, Effects and Control Measures

image of pollution

Today, environmental pollution is a major problem which affects humans and other life forms. The earth is a vast ecosystem within it. Green plants are the primary producer in every ecosystem and constitute the functional components. They take carbon dioxide and release oxygen during the process of photosynthesis and maintain equilibrium in the atmosphere. There … Read more

Phylum Cnidaria: Characteristics and Classification

image of Cnidaria

Leuckart (1847) first coined the name Cnidaria. The term ‘Cnidaria’ is derived from two words; Gr. Knide=nettle and L. aria=like or connected with. Cnideraia are also known as Coelenterata. They have diverse colorful, radially symmetrical bodies which are known as the flower of the sea. The phylum Cnidaria contains more than 10,000 living species, among … Read more

Cytoplasmic Inclusions

image of Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies

The contents of the cell between the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope are known as cytoplasm. It is a gel-like clear substance that contains living and non-living materials such as water, enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules. Among them, organelles form the living inclusions, and non-living substances form cytoplasmic inclusions. These substances do not … Read more

Economic Importance of Bacteria

image of Denitrifying Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled microscopic organisms which can live in different types of environment and survive in extreme conditions. They contain high protective coating in their body, which enhances to live any severe conditions. Many bacteria possess flagella which help them to move around, but some have hair-like structures which help them live in hard surfaces … Read more

Porifera : Characteristics and Classification

Scottish Anatomist and Zoologist Robert Edmond Grant proposed the name Porifera (L. Porus, pore and ferre, to bear). The representatives of Phylum Porifera are also known as Sponges. They are simple types of aquatic invertebrates. This phylum contains about 10000 species; among them, most of the species are Marine and some are freshwater (about 100 species). … Read more

Structure of Algae

image of Algae structure

Algae are photosynthetic microorganisms that perform photosynthesis and produce oxygen (O2) and consume carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. During photosynthesis, algae produce at least half of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. Most of the algae inhabit the aquatic environment, either freshwater or marine habitats. They can also occupy on rocks, soils, vegetation, or moist … Read more