Roles of Hormone in Human Body Growth
There are many hormones in the human body. Among them growth hormone and the thyroid hormones play an important role in the growth of the body. Growth hormones are secreted from the hypophysis or pituitary gland, also known as master gland while the thyroid hormones are produced from the thyroid gland.
Growth Hormones and its Role in Human Body Growth
Growth hormone is a protein molecule that contains 191 amino acids in a single chain and has a molecular weight of 22.005. It is also called somatotropic hormone or somatotropin. This hormone causes growth of almost all tissues of the body that are capable of growing; hence it is called growth hormone. It helps to promote the increasing height and weight of the body.
It performs to increase the growth of the body in the following ways:
Growth of Skeletal System
Growth hormone stimulates the cartilage and bone growth. It happens due to multiple effects of growth hormone on bone:
Growth hormone performs some specific metabolic effects, including:
Increasing Ionic Levels
Growth hormone influences to increase all the electrolytes in the body and helps to increase the body growth. Growth hormone influences absorption of Ca++ from the gut and reabsorption of different electrolytes in the kidney.
Increasing the Size of the Organ
Growth hormone stimulates the growth of muscles and other soft organs except the brain by promoting protein synthesis.
In Milk production
Growth hormone stimulates the mammary gland and increases milk production which helps in physical growth of infants.
Production of RBC
Growth hormone stimulates the erythropoesis process to production of more RBC in the body.
Growth hormone is used in medicine to treat children`s growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In recent years, growth hormone replacement therapies have become popular in the battle against aging and obesity.
Growth hormone also performs the following functions:
Besides, abnormal secretion of growth hormone leads to various abnormalities such as:
Dwarfism: Pituitary dwarfs are produced due to lack of Growth hormone since infancy.
Gigantism: Gigants are produced due to increased secretion of growth hormone before the union of epiphysis of long bones.
Acromegaly: Prolonged excess growth hormone thickens the bones of the jaw, fingers and toes. As a result, heaviness of the jaw and increased size of digits is referred to as acromegaly.
Role of Thyroid Hormones in Growth
Thyroid hormones are secreted from thyroid gland and play a great role for general growth of the body. They perform to influence the body growth in the following ways:
They perform some other functions which have direct or indirect effects on human growth as:
Besides, over secretion of thyroid hormone cause hyperthyroidism, as a result, the goiter occurs. Insufficient secretion of thyroid hormones cause hypothyroidism, as a result, cretinism occurs in the babies and myxodema disease occurs in adult.