Ecological balance is maintained when the environmental factors remain in a state of balance. If one or more of these factors are disturbed to any extent, then they may be recovered soon. But gross natural calamities like flood, earthquake, volcanic eruption, etc. destroy the ecological balance considerably and environmental organisms are liable to destruction. The animals and birds are the ornaments of nature, the beauty of the jungle. With the advancement of civilization, industrialization moves in rapid space. This has resulted in the feeling of the large trees, cleaning the forests.
Wildlife means life in any form (plant or animal) existing in the natural surrounding which provides recreational and economic benefits to man. All undomesticated or untamed animals living in their own natural habitats or in any habitat where they have been adapted are known as wildlife animals.
The proper utilization, preservation, and management of the natural resources of the earth are known as conservation.
According to Eugene Pleasants Odum (1972), conservation can be defined as a process which is concerned with the use, preservation, and proper management of the natural resources of the earth and their protection from destructive influences, misuse, decay, fire or waste.
Aims of conservation
Importance of conservation
Purpose of Wildlife Conservation
Plants and animals offer huge value to human being and it must be saved and protected for future generations to gather experience their presence and value. For the following purposes, we should conserve wild animals.
Medicinal purposes: Wild species (plants and animals) provides useful medications. Today, most of our life-threatening medicines are made from the natural compounds using diverse wild species. These wild species save our lives and contribute to a prospering medicine industry.
Ecological purposes: Foundation of a healthy ecosystem depends on biodiversity. Destruction of wild species makes the ecosystem imbalance. In this case, we should preserve the wildlife to make a balanced ecosystem.
Commercial purposes: Various wild species play a major role and contribute to national and international economics. Today, valuable these wild species are declined due to various human activities such as destruction of habitat, pollution, etc. This degradation of wildlife may impact on the economy; hence, our economy faces a critical problem. So, for the betterment of commercial importance; we should save wild animals and plants.
Aesthetic/recreational purposes: Wildlife species are an invaluable and irreplaceable resource and they provide spiritual, recreational, quality of life values. They also boost up the national economy and enhance the different country`s job-intensive tourism industry. To enhance our quality of life and future generations healthy, measures should be taken for the preservation of plants and animals.
Impact of Wildlife on Nature and Human Civilization
Impact of wildlife may be discussed on the following three headings:
Ecological: Every organism has got its own importance in nature, however harmful it might be. In maintaining the balance in the ecosystem occurs through the extinction of any such component, the balance in the ecosystem is disturbed. This imbalance threatens the life or livelihood of other organisms. Since through the break of food-chain on one level, the other levels grow by leaps and bounds and finally, they will be destined to attack human population directly or indirectly through the damage of his crops and organisms of interest. Through the biological control, the natural balance is maintained by prey and predator chain. Hence, ruthless annihilation of wildlife surely disturbs the balance and invites disaster to human life.
Aesthetics: Human life is full of bustle and hurry, but when we stand and leisurely look to the vast nature, we feel rejuvenated. The beauty and varied richness of the jungle inhabited by colorful and varied types of wild animals gives us pleasure and satisfaction. The multi-colored birds and their songs have always been a source of inspiration to the poets and the common people. The children particularly become joyous with the sight of the large animals (and wild) of the zoo-gardens and elsewhere. The children thus, become interested in and start loving the wild animals.
Economical: Properly maintained wildlife is a source of the country`s income. We can have economically valued materials like meat, skin, feathers, horn, etc. from wild animals, there is a demand of such materials in foreign countries where we can export these materials and earn foreign exchange. In fact, we have been doing so.
Besides, the resorts of the wildlife, particularly where vanishing and rare animals are kept, are always attractive to both national and international tourists. It is an easy source of earning revenue.
Causes of Wildlife Extinction
Recently, habitat destruction is the major cause of wildlife extinctions. This is done by several factors-
Lots of wild animal and plants are harvested from their natural habitat and sold for the purpose of food, pets, and medicine, skin and tourist curios every year.
It also causes a reduction of wild animals. Besides, uncontrolled over=exploitation is also responsible for the depletion of varieties of animals. If you hunt wildlife for the purpose of collecting food to a large extent, it leads to wildlife extinction. Hunting of animals is done for fun, financial gain, skin, bones, horn, fur, and feathers, etc. Hunting is also done for sports purposes.
It also leads to declining in wildlife extinction on the planet. It is done for various purposes such as elephants for ivory, rhinos for their horns and tigers for their skins and bones.
It is now one of the primary cause of wildlife extinction. Many unnatural chemicals are introduced in the agricultural farm which contaminates air, soil, and seas. The residues interfere with the metabolism of animals and inhibit the growth and disrupt the whole food web and leading to the collapse of the whole of the ecosystem.
Introducing foreign or invasive species in a new place often leads to ecological imbalance. They also carry pathogens causing diseases of native animals and disrupt food web. They also disrupt the habit and habitat of native species and change the environment of the old species and make adaptation challenge and species-species conflict and they lead to the extinction of native animals.
Climate change is a natural phenomenon which leads to emit greenhouse gas. Due to climate change, there are many species have gone to extinct. Generally, climate change interrupts breeding seasons and migration patterns of many animals leading to extinction.
Pressure of over human population causes crowding out of wild species and enhances wildlife extinction.
Random utilization of natural resources will threaten our future civilization. To maintain the ecological balance we should take care to conserve the natural resources. With the advancement of civilization, more and more resources are being used which also causes depletion of wild fauna such as:
Conservation Measures of Wldlife
As indicated by a present report, about 58% worldwide population have been falling since 1970 and if the pattern proceeds with that decrease could achieve two-third among vertebrate animals by 2020. If not urgent steps are taken, we may lose most of our wildlife. At present with the help of IUCN, different countries of the world have formulated the following ways and means for wildlife conservation.
Conservation of nature is the prime necessity for maintaining the ecological balance of the organic components. Hence, conservation of wildlife forms is a part of it. Protection, careful exploitation and management of wildlife will save these natural resources from misuse, decay, and destructive influences.
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