Vitamin Requirements of Fish: Vitamin Types, Sources and Deficiency Symptoms

Vitamins are a heterogeneous group of organic compounds that play a vital role in the growth and maintenance of the body of animals. Most vitamins are not made in the body according to the needs of the animal body. All of these elements are different from the basic food elements such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, except that the vitamins are chemically different from each other.

Plant and animal foods contain very small amounts of vitamins and are needed in very small amounts by the animal body. About 15 types of vitamins have been isolated from organic matter. Their requirements depend on the animal species, growth rate, food content and the synthesis capacity of bacteria living in the gastro-intestinal tract. Usually, in the absence of vitamins in the diet, the symptoms of specific physical and physiological deficiencies appear.

Based on solubility, vitamins can be divided into two main groups, namely water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.

Table: Classification of vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins

Thiamine/vitamin B1

Retinol/vitamin A

Riboflavin/vitamin B2

Cholecalciferol/vitamin D3

Pyridoxine/vitamin B6

Tocopherol/vitamin E

Pantothenic acid

Phylloquinone /vitamin K

Nicotinic acid/niacin


Biotin/vitamin H


Folic acid


Cyanocobalamin/vitamin B12


Inositol


Choline


Ascorbic acid/vitamin C


You might also read: Protein Requirements of Fish

Water-soluble Vitamins

The water soluble vitamins are the 6 members of the vitamin B complex such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin, folic acid and vitamin B12 and essential nutritional factors such as choline, insulin. The less active ingredients for fish with vitamins are P-amino benzoic acid, lipoic acid and cysteine. Although the first 6 vitamins require only a small amount in the diet, they play a more important role in the growth, physiological and metabolic functions of fish. Choline, insitol and ascorbic acid are required in large quantities in food and are sometimes considered as the main nutrient rather than a vitamin.

Thiamine/vitamin B1

Eijkman observed a condition similar to avian polyneuritis beriberi under study in Java in 1886 and he classified the antibacterial factor and named it vitamin. The term thiamine is introduced after the chemical nature of the factor has been confirmed. Thiamine was separated from rice husk in 1926 and synthesized in 1936.

Properties of Thiamine

  • Thiamine hydrochloride is a water soluble, colorless, monoclinic, crystalline compound.
  • It is relatively stable in dry heat but breaks down quickly in neutral or alkaline solutions.
  • It is broken down by sulphite into pyrimidine and thiazole mayotite.
  • It has a characteristic odor similar to yeast.
  • Its pyrimidine ring is relatively durable but the thiazole ring can be easily exposed by moisture analysis.
  • Its constituents are stable in heat. The ingredients derived from thiamine are more soluble in mild alkaline solutions and exhibit biological activity in animals.

Biological Functions of Thiamine

  • Thiamine acts as a co-enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism.
  • The ester of thiamine makes pyruvic acid and alpha-ketoguturic acid acetyl co-enzyme-A and succinil co-enzyme A through thiamine pyrophosphate oxidative decarboxylation.
  • In particular, it plays a role in the oxidation of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway as an activator of the enzyme transkotolase.
  • It is vital for interest in food, normal digestion, growth and fertility.
  • It is necessary for the normal functioning of the nerve collar.

Source of Thiamine

  • Dried peas
  • Beans
  • Dry yeast
  • Rice husk
  • Rice powder
  • Nuts
  • Wheat bran
  • Barley
  • Cotton seeds
  • Soybean meal
  • Rape seed meal
  • Fish meal

Symptoms of Thiamine Deficiency

  • Problems with carbohydrate metabolism
  • Neurological impairment
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low growth rate
  • Increased susceptibility to injury
  • Bleeding at the base of the fins with the bent of the trunk
  • Bleeding of the skin and under the skin

Riboflavin/vitamin B2

The word riboflavin is derived from the two words ‘ribose’ and ‘flavin’. It is the second discovered water-soluble vitamin. It is also called vitamin B2. Previously, this vitamin was called G. It is the central component of the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavon mononucleotide (FMN).

Characteristics of Riboflavin

  • It is a yellowish brown crystalline pigment.
  • Slightly soluble in water but more soluble in alkali.
  • It is insoluble in most organic solvents.
  • It is stable in dry heat.

Biological Functions of Riboflavin

  • It acts on tissues as flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
  • Flavoprotein is used as an enzyme in tissue respiration and participates in the transport of hydrogen by acting as an inhibitor of toxic pyridine nucleotides (NADH and NADPH).
  • It helps in making retinal pigments for light adaptation. In the absence of this, three-eyed vision and light fear can be noticed in the animal under examination.
  • Riboflavin converts tryptophan to nicotinic acid with the help of pyridoxine and is important for respiration of less blood vessel complete tissues such as the cornea of the eye.
  • It is widely used in cellular processes.
  • It plays an important role in energy production and also plays a role in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.

Source of Riboflavin

  • Milk
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • The heart
  • Yeast
  • Sprouted gram
  • Nuts
  • Soybeans
  • Eggs
  • Poultry droppings
  • Fish meal
  • Alfalfa meal

Symptoms of Riboflavin Deficiency

  • Loss of appetite
  • Fear of light
  • Blindness
  • Bleeding in the eyes
  • Imbalance
  • Anemia
  • Wounds on the skin
  • Black spots on the skin

Pyridoxine/Vitamin B6

In 1935, Gyorgi described a new factor for curing dermatitis in rats, which he called it vitamin B6. He later introduced the name pyridoxine. The active compounds of vitamin B6 are pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine.

Properties of Pyridoxine

  • Pyrodoxin hydrochloride is highly soluble in water.
  • Unchangeable in acid or alkaline solution.
  • It acts as a co-enzyme with numerous enzymes.
  • It is sensitive to the presence of ultraviolet rays in neutral or alkaline solutions.
  • Variable in pyridoxamine and pyridoxal dilute solutions.
  • They are quickly destroyed by air, heat and light.

Biological Functions of Pyridoxine

  • Pyridoxal phosphate is a co-enzyme of codecarboxylase. It plays a role in de-carboxylation of amino acids.
  • It acts as a co-factor of 22 trans amino acids present in animal cells.
  • Pyridoxal phosphate as codecarboxylase converts 5-hydroxy tryptophan to 5-hydroxy tryptamine or serotonin by carboxylation.
  • As a co-factor of the enzyme disulfide, it converts cysteine to pyruvic acid.
  • Pyridoxal phosphate is required as a co-enzyme to make many neuro hormones.
  • It is involved in fat metabolism, especially in the metabolism of essential fatty acids.
  • It plays an important role in the formation of tRNA.
  • It plays a role in the synthesis of hemoglobin, insulin.
  • It controls the immune system.

Source of Pyridoxine

  • Yeast
  • Grains
  • Egg yolk
  • Liver
  • Sunflower Seed meal
  • Bone meal
  • Meat meal
  • Fish Meal
  • Alfalfa meal
  • Cotton seed meal
  • Soybean meal
  • Rice bran

Symptoms of Pyridoxine Deficiency

  • Nerve impairment
  • Lack of control over melanophore production
  • Breathing fast
  • Tumors with colorless cirrhosis in the abdominal cavity
  • Dermatitis
  • Physical weakness
  • Convulsions
  • Loss of Appetite

Pantothenic Acid

Elvehjen and Koehn (1935) benefited from the treatment of dermatitis in a chick using a factor containing β -alanine. Williams was the first to use the term pantothenic acid to describe the growth factor of an yeast. It later became known as anti-dermatitis factor. Stiller made the first pantothenic acid in 1940. In 1945, Phillips observed a gall-shaped gill by feeding trout fish without pantothenic acid. Rucker observed the same situation by providing low levels of pantothenic acid in salmon fish food.

Characteristics of Pantothenic Acid

  • It is considered to bind dihydroxy dimethyl butyric acid to alanine.
  • It is a yellow glue oil-like compound.
  • Its salt is a white granular powder which is easily soluble in water and mild acids.
  • It is insoluble in most organic solvents.
  • It does not change through oxidants and toxins.
  • It is destroyed by dry heat, heated alkali or acid.

Biological Functions of Pantothenic Acid

  • As it is a part of the acetyl co-enzyme, it performs many enzyme reactions on two carbon compounds.
  • It is vital for the development of the central nervous system.
  • It is an essential secondary ingredient for protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
  • It is involved in adrenal activation and cholesterol production.
  • It is involved in the acylation of acetate, succinate, benzoate, propionate and butyrate.
  • It is also involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, steroids, hemoglobin, etc.

Source of Pantothenic Acid

  • Dry yeast
  • Liver
  • The heart
  • Kidney
  • Rice bran
  • Nuts
  • Sunflower Seed meal
  • Wheat bran
  • Alfalfa meal
  • Fish meal
  • Soybean meal
  • Rape seed meal
  • Cotton seed meal
  • Poultry droppings
  • Molasses
  • Corn
  • Vegetables
  • Chicken eggs

Symptoms of Pantothenic Acid Deficiency

  • Loss of appetite
  • Gill rot disease
  • Anemia
  • Exhaustion
  • Wound marks on the skin
  • Gill size change
  • Decreased growth rate
  • Slow motion

Niacin

In nature it has two forms, namely nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. The first synthesis of nicotinic acid was made in 1873. Co-enzyme and vitamin A can be detected 60 years later, and two more years later, Elvehjem got good result by applying vitamin  A to treat  black tongue disease in dogs. In 1937, niacin was thought to be a part of the H-factor of fish.

Characteristics of Niacin

  • It is a white granular solid that is soluble in water and alcohol.
  • It is unalterable in dry conditions.
  • It does not change when heated with mineral acids and alkalis.
  • It can be easily turned into ester. At this time it is converted to amide.
  • Nicotinamide is a granular powder that is soluble in water and ethanol.
  • Vitamin A normally exists as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).

Biological Functions of Niacin

  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) act as co-enzymes of the nicotinic acid enzyme system which is involved in metabolic processes (hydrogen removal and transport).
  • Its main function is to transport hydrogen during metabolism.
  • It helps in maintaining the physiological functions of fish such as glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and homeostasis.
  • It participates in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.

Source of Niacin

  • Dry Yeast
  • Rice bran
  •  Wheat flower
  • Sunflower Seed meal
  • Nuts
  • Rape seed meal
  • Meat meal
  • Bone meal
  • Poultry droppings
  • Alfalpa meal
  • Barley
  • Mollasses
  • Vegetables
  • Liver
  • Lungs etc.

Symptoms of Niacin Deficiency

  • Loss of Appetite
  • Decreased food conversion rate
  • Wounds in the colon
  • Bleeding on the skin
  • Muscle weakness
  • Convulsions
  • Low growth rate

Biotin

Biotin was formerly known as co-enzyme R and vitamin H. Du Vigneaud isolated biotin in 1941 and synthesized it in 1943 by researchers from Mark and Co.

Characteristics of Biotin

  • Biotin is a monocarboxylic acid.
  • It is slightly soluble in water and alcohol and insoluble in organic solvents.
  • Its aqueous solution or dry matter remains unchanged in temperature 1000 C and light.
  • Vitamin A is destroyed by acids, alkalis and oxidants such as peroxide or permanganate.

Biological Functions of Biotin

  • It carries carbon dioxide from one compound to another by participating in the caboxylation reaction as a co-enzyme.
  • It participates in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
  • It also participates in purine and protein synthesis.
  • It involves the conversion of unsaturated fatty acids into biologically active and stable cis-fatty acids.

Source of Biotin

  • Dry yeast
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Dairy products
  • Nuts
  • Sunflower Seed meal
  • Chicken eggs
  • Rice bran
  • Cotton seed meal
  • Fish meal
  • Wheat bran
  • Blood meal
  • Alfalfa meal
  • Sesame seed meal
  • Tishi seed meal
  • Vegetables

Symptoms of Biotin Deficiency

  • Muscle loss
  • Convulsions
  • Wounds in the colon
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Fracture of red blood cells
  • Decreased growth rate
  • Paralysis
  • Blue slime spot disease
  • The gills become colorless
  • Increased mortality
  • Gill lamelli thickening

Folic Acid

Folic acid is also known as folacin. It is one of the factors responsible for the cure of monoblastic anemia in monkeys. It was named Vitamin M in 1935. In 1939, an anti-anemic factor was found in the liver called vitamin BC. It was later found that it is an active ingredient in folic acid. Folic acid was synthesized in 1947 and was used in fish diets to prevent anemia caused by malnutrition.

Properties of Folic Acid

  • Folic acid is a granular yellow pear-shaped molecule.
  • It is soluble in water and mild alcohol.
  • It can be precipitated by heavy metallic salts.
  • Stable in heat in mild and alkaline solutions but variable in acid solutions.
  • In case of sunlight or long term storage, its quality is lost.
  • Some of its isotopic compounds, such as teric acid, rhizopterine, folinic acid, xantherin, and formaldehyde hydrochloride, exhibit biological activity in glutamic acid derivatives.

Source of Folic Acid

  • Yeast
  • Green vegetables
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Glandular tissue
  • Fish tissue and viscera
  • Alfalfa meal
  • Rape seed meal
  • Sunflower Seed meal
  • Cotton seed meal
  • Different types of fruits such as lemons, strawberries, bananas
  • Rice bran
  • Wheat bran
  • Sprouted wheat
  • Soybean meal

Biological Functions of Folic Acid

  • Folic acid plays an important role in the formation of normal blood cells.
  • It acts as a co-enzyme in carbon transport.
  • It is converted to active tetrahydrofolic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid.
  • It converts megaloblastic bone marrow into normoblastic bone marrow.
  • Blood glucose control and cell membrane function and egg fertilization.
  • It synthesizes hemoglobin, glycine, methionine, choline, thiamine, purine, histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine.
  • It also contributes to the metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine and histidine.

Symptoms of Folic Acid Deficiency

  • Macrocytic anemia
  • Low growth rate
  • Fear of food
  • General anemia
  • Fin erosion
  • Exhaustion

Cyanocobalamin

It is also known as vitamin B12. It is an anti-anemia factor. It was separated and crystallized in the mid-forties. Its discoverer named this ingredient Vitamin B12. It was later found that it was essential for the growth of chicks. It is entirely plant-derived and is known as the Animal Protein Factor (APF). When anemic salmon are supplied with vitamin B12 along with xanthopterine and folic acid, red blood cell production begins within a few days and salmon recovers quickly from anemia.

image of Cyanocobalamin

Characteristics of Cyanocobalamin

  • It stabilizes in mild heat in mild solution but dissolves quickly in mild acid or alkali solution.
  • This compound is similar to paraffin. It consists of a central cobalt atom attached to four toxic pyrol chains in the hemi-series.
  • Replacing the cyano group by different types of negative ions gives the same type of biologically active offspring such as hydroxycobalamin, nitritocobalamin, chlorocobalamin and sulfatocobalamin.

Source of Cyanocobalamin

  • Fish meal
  • Viscera of the fish
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Glandular tissue
  • Butchery waste
  • Bone meal
  • Meat meal
  • Poultry droppings
  • The excrement of other animals

Biological Functions of Cyanocobalamin

  • It participates in hemopoiesis with folic acid.
  • It acts as a growth factor for many microorganisms and animals.
  • A co-enzyme combines with vitamin B12 to convert succinil co-enzyme A and methyl aspartate into glutamate by combining methyl malonyl co-enzyme A.
  • It plays an important role in amino acid metabolism.
  • It is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol, the biosynthesis of urine and pyrimidine, and the metabolism of glycol.
  • It maintains the nerve collar.

Symptoms of Cyanocobalamin Deficiency

  • Low growth rate
  • Anemia
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Low food conversion rate
  • Abnormal pigmentation on the skin
  • Imbalance

Inositol

Scherer discovered muscle sugar in 1850. In 18 he was identified as Inositol. It was identified in 1940 as a factor in preventing hair loss in rats. In the absence of inositol, salmon and carp fish have low growth and low food intake.

Characteristics of Inositol

  • Hexahydroxycyclohexane contains seven inactivators and two active light isotopes. Myoincitol is one of the active states of light. It is a white granular powder that is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol and ether.
  • Inositol can be synthesized but can be easily separated from organic matter in free or mixed form.
  • Inositl is a more stable compound.
  • Phytin is a mixture of hexophosphate calcium and magnesium salts.

Source of Inositol

  • Animal and plant tissues
  • Wheat seeds
  • Dried peas
  • Beans
  • The brain
  • Liver
  • The heart
  • Fruits rich in vitamin C.
  • Yeast

Biological Functions of Inositol

  • Myoinsotol is the structural organic components of living tissue.
  • It does lipolytic action by preventing the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver.
  • It plays an important role in the growth of liver and bone marrow cells.
  • It does not take part in the RNA synthesis.
  • It stores carbohydrates in the muscles.
  • It is a component of phosphoglycerides in animal tissues.

Symptoms of Inositol Deficiency

  • Low growth rate
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling of the stomach
  • Dull skin color
  • Wounds on the skin

Choline

Hoffmeister thought of methylation as a basic metabolic process. Thompson observed methyl transfer inside the cell. Digniad (1939-1942) observed the interrelationship between choline, methionine and homocysteine. When trout fish are fed a diet rich in low levels of choline, blood is seen in the kidneys. When salmon are fed choline-deficient food, they are reluctant to eat.

Characteristics of Coline

  • Choline is an essential component of phospholipids and acetylcholine.
  • It is an extremely strong organic alkali. There is a wide range of its offspring in animal and plant cells; one such birthmark is acetylcholine.
  • It is a water-absorbing substance.
  • It is soluble in water and remains unchanged in the application of heat to acids but decomposes in alkaline solutions.

Biological Functions of Choline

  • In transmethylation reactions it acts as a methyl receptor.
  • Choline is an essential component of phospholipids and acetylcholine that is involved in the transport of nerve stimuli.
  • It is a lipotropic and anti hemorrhagic factor that inhibits fat storage in the liver.
  • It participates in phospholipid production and fat transport.
  • Coline is needed for fish growth and good food conversion rate.

Source of Coline

  • Rape seed meal
  • Cotton seed meal
  • Soybean meal
  • Sunflower Seed meal
  • Yeast
  • Bone meal
  • Meat meal
  • Fish meal
  • Nuts
  • Chicken eggs
  • Sprouted wheat
  • Wheat bran
  • Rice bran
  • Rice flowe
  • Alfalfa meal
  • Poultry droppings
  • Shrimp meal
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • The brain
  • Heart muscle

Symptoms of Coline Deficiency

  • Low growth rate
  • Low food conversion rate
  • Bleeding in the kidneys and intestines

Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid is also called vitamin C. In 1853, Lind described the experimental use of fruit juice to cure scurvy. It takes another 200 years to determine the exact chemical composition of the compound that is responsible for reducing the symptoms. Szent-Gyorgyi of Hungary and C.G. King of the United States separated vitamin C. Vitamin C was synthesized in 1933 after British and Swedish scientists discovered the chemical composition of ascorbic acid. In 1934, Mecay and Tunison observed Brooke Trout's scoliosis preserved in formalin, and McLaren observed blood loss in the body by supplying food trout with low ascorbic acid levels.

Properties of Ascorbic Acid

  • L-Ascorbic acid is a white, odorless granular compound.
  • It is soluble in water but insoluble in fat.
  • It is rapidly oxidized and converted to dehydroascorbic acid.
  • It is very stable in acid solution but quickly decomposes moisture in alkaline solution and loses its active vitamin.
  • It loses its properties after heating.

Source of Ascorbic Acid

  • Citrus fruits
  • Cabbage
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Round potatoes
  • Fish meal

Biological Functions of Ascorbic Acid

  • L-Ascorbic acid acts as a biological toxic agent to hydrogen transport.
  • It plays a role in the hydroxylation of tryptophan, tyrosine or proline.
  • It involves the detoxification of aromatic drugs.
  • It also plays a role in the production of adrenal steroids.
  • It is essential for making hydroxy proline; In this case, Hydroxy Proline is the structural component of collagen.
  • It helps in red blood cell maturation.
  • Vitamin C is essential for converting folic acid to folinic acid.

Symptoms of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency

  1. Jaw protection
  2. Problems with bone formation
  3. Blood emptiness
  4. Oedema
  5. Hyperplasia
  6. Collagen is not formed
  7. Bleeding in the fins
  8. Scoliosis
  9. Lordosis

Fat-soluble Vitamins

The fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K. Their overall activity differs from that of water-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are rapidly metabolized and excreted outside the body if taken in excess of the liver or tissue's storage capacity, so there is little information on the symptoms of overdose. However, when an overdose of a fat-soluble vitamin is taken by fish, overdose symptoms are observed in fish and other organisms.

Retinol

Retinol is also known as Vitamin A. In the early twentieth century, Hopkins, Osborne and Mendel discovered a factor in the growth fat of rats. McCollum and Simmonds cure Xerophthalmia of the eye with the factor. Von Euler discovered the chemical composition of vitamin A and its relationship to β-carotene in 1926. Active vitamin A was synthesized in 1935.

Characteristics of Retinol

  • Retinol is the aldehyde state of vitamin A.
  • It has been isolated from the retina of nocturnal animals.
  • Retinoic acid is the vitamin A which is oxidized state of alcohol.
  • Vitamin A alcohol is found in light colored oils.
  • It is stable in heat and oxidizes in air.
  • β- Carotene is a granular compound which is more stable to heat and corrosion.
  • Vitamin A is insoluble in water but soluble in fats and organic solvents.

Biological Functions of Retinol

  • It maintains epithelial cells.
  • It inhibits epithelial tissue erosion and keratin production.
  • It is very necessary for animals to see at night.
  • Vitamin A promotes new cell growth and builds resistance to infections.
  • It participates in the formation of mucopolysaccharides.
  • It helps in the secretion of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomes.

Source of Retinol

  • Cod liver oil
  • Helibut Liver oil
  • Carrots
  • Spinach
  • Liver
  • Fish meal
  • Viscera of the fish

Symptoms of Retinol Deficiency

  • Low growth rate
  • Blindness
  • Xerophthalmia
  • Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye
  • Bleeding at the base of the fins
  • Abnormal bone formation
  • Nerve damage

Cholecalciferol

Hopkins and Mellanby cured dog rickets by adding codliver oil to their daily diet. The role of ultraviolet rays in preventing rickets and the action of ergosterol and provitamin D are also important. Angus separates granular vitamin D. Windaus isolates active 7-dihydrocholesterol.

Characteristics of Cholecalciferol

  • Vitamin D2 is one of the biologically active stages of vitamin D.
  • Vitamin D3 or activated 7-dihydrocholesterol whose chemical formula is C27H44O. It has 8 unsaturated carbon side chains.
  • Vitamin D3 is also called cholecalciferol.
  • Under the influence of ultraviolet rays, a bond of 7- dehydrocholesterol is broken and vitamin D is formed in most animal tissues.
  • Cholecalciferol is a white granular compound.
  • It dissolves fats and organic solvents.
  • It is stable in mild alkaline or acid solutions and heat.

Source of Cholecalciferol

  • Cod liver oil
  • Fish meal
  • Kiver
  • Oil

Biological Functions of Cholecalciferol

  • Calcium and phosphate play an important role in metabolism.
  • It is involved with alkaline phosphatase enzymes and helps in intestinal calcium absorption.
  • It affects the action of parathyroid hormones in bones.
  • It regulates the level of calcium in the blood.
  • It regulates the oxidation and storage of citrate in bones.
  • It plays a role in the formation of calcium-binding proteins in intestinal epithelial tissue.
  • It converts inorganic phosphate to organic phosphate in bones.

Symptoms of Cholecalciferol Deficiency

  • The bones are soft and weak
  • Bone loss
  • Disability of the body

Tocopherol

Evans and Bishop described the existence of anti-inflammatory vitamins. Sure (Sure) called the factor Vitamin E. Karrer isolates, identifies, and synthesizes active tocopherols.

Characteristics of Tochopherols

Vitamin E consists of a class of compounds called tocopherols. The most important of these is α - tocopherols. Eight naturally occurring tocopherols have been isolated. Synthetic α-tocopherol is a mixture of racemic DL-α-tocopherol. The names of the 8 tocopherols obtained are shown in the table:

α -Tocopherol (alpha)

5,7,8-trimethyltocol

β-Tocopherol (beta)

5,8-dimethyltocol

γ -Tocopherol (gamma)

7,8-dimethyltocol

ζ2-Tocopherol (zeta2)

5,7-dimethyltocol

η -Tocopherol (eta)

7-methyltocol

δ -Tocopherol (delta)

8-methyltocol

ε-Tocopherol (epsilon)

5,8-dimethyltocotrienol

ζ 1-Tocopherol (zeta1)

5,7,8-trimethyltocotrienol

Characteristics of Tocopherols

  • Pure tocopherol is a soluble oil. It forms granular compounds through sterilization.
  • Tocopherols are stable in the absence of heat and oxygen, but they rapidly oxidizes in the presence of oxygen to form peroxides or other oxidizing agents.
  • It is sensitive to ultraviolet rays.
  • Its free phase is an excellent quality anti-corrosive material.
  • Its esters are more durable.

Sources of Tochopherol

  • Liver
  • Alfalfa seed meal
  • Chicken eggs
  • Rice bran
  • Rice flour
  • Yeast
  • Soybean meal
  • Maize
  • Wheat flour
  • Fish meal
  • Sunflower seed meal
  • Cotton seed meal
  • Vegetable oils
  • Green vegetables

Biological Functions of Tocopherols

  • Tocopherols act as fat-soluble extracellular and intracellular antioxidants in animals.
  • It protects the highly unsaturated fatty acids present in cellular and subcellular membranes.
  • It plays a role in cellular respiration and the biosynthesis of co-enzymes Q and DNA.
  • It maintains the normal permeability of the blood vessels.
  • It permeates the embryonic membrane of the fish and helps in egg hatching.
  • It combines with selenium and vitamin C to create normal fertility.
  • It prevents nutritious muscle loss in fish.

Symptoms of Tocopherol Deficiency:

  • Anemia
  • Xerophthalmia
  • Muscle loss
  • Low growth rate
  • Low food conversion rate
  • Epicardosis
  • Decreased fertility
  • Deposits of steroids in the liver and spleen

Vitamin K

Dam suggested the name of Vitamin A. He separated vitamin K from alfalfa and fish meal in 1939. It is synthesized in the following year. Naphthoquinone has the activity of vitamin K in all native compounds. There are two types of naphthoquinone found in nature, namely phylloquinone from green plants and multiprenylminaquinone from microorganisms. There is also a simpler and stronger derivatives of vitamin K called minadion (vitamin K3).

Characteristics of Vitamin K:

  • The vitamin K2 has a side chain of 6, 7 or 9 iso propane with 30-45 carbon atoms.
  • Many isoforms of vitamin K have been identified from animal, plant tissues and microorganisms.
  • Although they are stable compounds, they are destroyed when exposed to oxidation and ultraviolet rays.

Source of Vitamin K

  • Alfalfa meal
  • Liver
  • Green and leaf-based vegetables such as spinach, cabbage, etc
  • Fish meal

Biological Functions of Vitamin K

  • It controls blood clotting.
  • It plays a role in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation in organisms.
  • It protects the body from microbial infections.

Symptoms of Vitamin K Deficiency:

  • Bleeding is seen in the gills, eyes, and arteries
  • In the absence of vitamin K, blood clotting is delayed.
  • Anemia
  • Mortality increases

Requiremets of Vitamins in Fish Food

Under controlled conditions, the need for vitamins in fish and shrimp has determined in the laboratory according to the dosage taken with pure or semi-pure food. This requiremt is usually based on desired growth, feeding efficiency, or amount of vitamin concentration in tissues (ADCP, 1980; Castell et al., 1986; Cho, Cowey and Watanabe, 1985; Halver, 1985; Kanazawa, 1983; Koenig, 1981; NRC, 1983; and Robinson and Wilson, 1985).

15 or more vitamins have been reported in most fish and shrimp as a physiological requirement. Quantitative demand of vitamins in food under cultivation depends on some of the following important regulators.

  •  Food behavior in farmed fish and shrimp has been observed. For example, since shrimp consume food over a long period of time, water-soluble vitamins are added to the water, so more vitamins are needed in the food.
  • Cultivated fish and shrimp species have the ability to synthesize vitamins in the intestines of microorganisms. For example, intestinal microorganisms synthesize most of the B vitamins, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, insitol, and vitamin K, making it readily available to animals, which reduces the need for vitamins in food. This is especially true of the omnivorous fish and shrimp species that cultivated in ponds.

  • Based on the easy availability of natural food in the water and in controlled environment such as intensive, semi-intensive and traditional methods of fish farming, fishes are cultivated. For example, in the case of tilapia or carp fish in 100 ponds per cubic meter in ponds or ponds where inorganic fertilizers have been applied, adding vitamins to the diet has not yielded the desired results (Ashrat, Israel, 1985). Important regulators here are the natural fertility of the reservoir and the overall livelihood of the stored fish and shrimp species.  It is very important to increase the amount of vitamins in the food as the availability of natural food by the stored fish decreases with the increase in the concentration in the reservoir. Natural food plays an important source of vitamins for the species cultivated in ponds.
  • The physical size and growth rate of farmed fish and shrimp species (for example, the size and growth rate of an animal decreases with each unit of body weight loss due to the daily vitamin requirements of fish and shrimp).
  • Consumption of  nutrients rich foods.
  • Physiological condition of cultivated fish and shrimp species and physico-chemical properties of water. For example, excess ascorbic acid in the diet reduces the negative effects of pollution, disease, physical injuries, and other environmental regulators.

Table: Requirements of vitamins in fish and shrimp diet

Vitamin/Species

Cultivate Methods

Vitamin requirements in food

Reference

Riboflavin




Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

4 mg/kg

Aoe et al., (1967)

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

4-7 mg/kg

Ogino (1967)

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

7 mg/kg

Takeuchi, Takeuchi & Ogino (1980)

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

9 mg/kg

Murai & Andrews (1978)

Atlantic salmon (Salmo  salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

5-10 mg/kg

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (Clarias batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin (1985)

Thiamine




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Aoe et al, (1967)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

1 mg/kg

Murai & Andrews (1978a)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

10-15 mg/kg

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (C. batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin

Penaeids

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

60-120 mg/kg

Deshimaru & Kuroki (1979) (1985)

Nicotinic Acid




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

28 mg/kg

Aoe, Masuda & Takada (1967)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

14 mg/kg

Andrews & Murai (1978)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (C. batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin (1985)

Pyrodoxine




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

5.4 mg/kg

Ogino (1965)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

3 mg/kg

Andrews & Murai (1979)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

10-15 mg/kg

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (C. batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin (1985)

Penaeids

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

120/kg

Deshimaru & Kuroki (1979)

Folic Acid




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Aoe et al., (1967a)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Dupree (1966)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

5-10 mg/kg

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (C. batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin (1985)

Pantothenic Acid




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

30-50 mg/kg

Ogino (1967)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

15 mg/kg

Wilson, Bowser & Poe (1983)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (C. batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin (1985)

Biotin




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

1 mg/kg

Ogino et al., (1970)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

≥ 1 mg/kg

Lovell & Buston (1984)

Cyanocobalamin




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Hashimoto (1953)

Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Kashiwada & Teshima (1966)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Limsuwan & Lovell (1981)

Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Lovell & Limsuwan (1982)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1980)

Inositol




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

440 mg/kg

Aoe & Masuda (1967)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Burtle (1981)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1980)

Penaeids (Penaeus japonicus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

2000 mg/kg

Kanazawa, Teshima & Tanaka (1976)

Penaeids (P. japonicus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

4000 mg/kg

Deshimaru & Kuroki (1979)

Choline




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

4000 mg/kg

Ogino et al., (1970)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Dupree (1966)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1980)

Penaeids (P. japonicas)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

600 mg/kg

Kanazawa, Teshima & Tanaka (1976)

Ascorbic Acid




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Sato et al., (1978)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

60 mg/kg

Wilson & Poe (1973)

Atlantic salmon (S. salar)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1980)

Walking catfish (C. batrachus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Butthep, Sitasit & Boonyaratpalin (1985)

Penaeids (P. japonicus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

10,000 mg/kg

Guary et al., (1976)

Penaeids (P. japonicus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

3000 mg/kg

Kanazawa (1983)

Penaeids (P. japonicus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

1000 mg/kg

Lightner et al., (1979)

Vitamin K




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

NRC (1983)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

Murai & Andrews (1977)

Salmonids

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Halver (1972)

Tochopherol(Vitamin E)




Tilapia (O. niloticus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

50-100 mg/kg

Satoh, Takeuchi & Watanabe (1987)

Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

100 mg/kg

Watanabe et al., (1970)

Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

300 mg/kg

Watanabe et al., (1977)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

30-75 mg/kg

Lovell, Miyazaki & Rabegnator (1984)

Penaeids (P. japonicus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Kanazawa (1983)

Cholecalciferol(Vitamin D3)




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

NR

NRC (1983)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

1000 IU

Andrews, Murai & Page (1980)

Penaeids (P. japonicus

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

R

Kanazawa (1983)

Retinol




Common carp (C. carpio)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

4000-20000 IU

Aoe et al., (1968)

Channel catfish (I. punctatus)

Controlled reservoirs (pure food)

1000-2000 IU

Dupree (1970)

Salmonids

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R

Halver (1972)

R – The demand for food has been shown but the quantitative demand is unknown;  NR- Food demand was not assessed during the experiment.

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