Hepatitis: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Prevention
Hepatitis is actually the inflammatory condition of the liver. The word “hepatitis” is derived from the Greek word ‘hepar’ and Latin word ‘itis’. In this case, ‘hepar’ means liver and ‘itis’ means inflammation. It is generally caused by a viral infection but other possible causes are available including autoimmune hepatitis and it also occurs as a secondary result of drugs, medications, alcohol and toxins. In this case, autoimmune hepatitis is one kind of disease which happens when the body produces antibodies against your liver tissue.
The healthy liver performs several following important functions in your body:
About 250 million people are affected worldwide by hepatitis C and about 300 million people are hepatitis B virus carriers. About 4.4 million Americans are currently suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C. About one fifth of the patients with chronic hepatitis B and C are at the risk of developing cirrhosis or cancer of the liver can.
General Causes of Hepatitis
General Symptoms of Hepatitis
The symptoms of acute hepatitis vary considerably from person to person. In many cases, some patients do not show any symptoms at all while children only show weak symptoms. The following are some symptoms of hepatitis:
General Diagnosis of Hepatitis
Blood cells help to determine the cause and severity of the hepatitis. Ultrasound and other types of liver scans are helpful to detect hepatitis. In certain situations, a liver biopsy may be recommended.
General Preventive Measures of Hepatitis
General Treatments of Hepatitis
There are no treatments specifically for hepatitis A. The vast majority of hepatitis A patients recover spontaneously. Hepatitis B patient needs to take rest and he also requires a diet with high protein and carbohydrate. This helps to repair damaged liver cells as well as to protect the liver. In some cases, doctor prescribes interferon to treat hepatitis. Hepatitis C patient needs to treat with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Effective treatment is not available for hepatitis D and E.
If the patient has non-viral hepatitis, the doctor needs to remove the harmful substance from the body. It will be flushed out of the stomach by hyperventilation or induced vomiting.
Complications of Hepatitis
Types of Viral Hepatitis
There are five types of hepatitis that are caused by a virus. These are:
- Hepatitis A;
- Hepatitis B;
- Hepatitis C;
- Hepatitis D;
- Hepatitis E;
Each type is caused by a different virus. Most liver damage is caused by three hepatitis viruses, called hepatitis A, B and C. Hepatitis can be divided into two subgroups based on its duration:
Hepatitis A is short-term disease and is always an acute but hepatitis B, C, and D are chronic and ongoing diseases while hepatitis E is generally acute which can be mostly dangerous in pregnant women.
Hepatitis A is occurred by the infection of HAV (Hepatitis A virus). It is generally spread by hepatitis A infected person when any person consume contaminated food or water by feces or you may be infected from close contact with a person or object that is infected. It can also be severe and life threatening if you do not take treatment.
Causes of Hepatitis A
It is caused by the following ways:
Symptoms of Hepatitis A
Preventive Measures of Hepatitis A
As a preventive measure, you should practice good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Safe and effective vaccine is available to protect against hepatitis A if the people at risk.
Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection which is occurred by the HBV (hepatitis B virus). In many cases, it becomes chronic which leads to serious health issues such as developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis. About 90% infected infants are infected chronically while only 2%–6% of adults are infected chronically. About 350 million people live with chronic hepatitis B worldwide.
Causes of Hepatitis B
HBV can spread the following ways:
Symptoms of Hepatitis B
Preventive Measures of Hepatitis B
Treatment of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C is occurred by the HCV (hepatitis C virus). It is very life threatening disease because there is no vaccination for hepatitis C. It is a liver disease and it can be chronic and need a liver transplant. It is a common blood born liver infection in many countroes. In America, about 2.7 to 3.9 million people are currently suffering from the chronic hepatitis C.
Causes of Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C does not occur through:
Symptoms of Hepatitis C
Many people do not have any symptoms when they are infected with hepatitis. Between 2 weeks and 6 months after entering the virus enters into your bloodstream, the following symptoms appear:
Preventive Measures of Hepatitis C
Treatment and Medication of Hepatitis C
There is no recommendation if you suffer from acute hepatitis C but when it turns into a chronic form then it needs several medications that are available. The effective antiviral medications for both acute and chronic forms are interferon, peginterferon, and ribavirin, etc. Generally chronic hepatitis C are treated using combination of antiviral drug therapies.
Hepatitis D is a serious disease caused by HDV (hepatitis D virus). It is also known as delta hepatitis. It is rare form of hepatitis which only occurs when any person is already infected with hepatitis B. Nearly about 5% chronic hepatitis B infected people affects globally by the hepatitis D. It is a liver disease which does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B virus. Co-infection with HDV-HBV is the most chronic viral disease which progresses rapidly that can cause life-threatening hepatocellular carcinoma and death.
Causes of Hepatitis D
Hepatitis D is caused by HDV (Hepatitis D virus). This disease is infectious and transmits through direct contact with the bodily fluids of hepatitis D infected person. It can also be transmitted through:
Symptoms of Hepatitis D
Preventive Measures of Hepatitis D
Treatment of Hepatitis D
To treat acute or chronic hepatitis D, there is no known treatment. Antiviral medications are not very effective against hepatitis D. The large dose of interferon is used for up to one year.
Hepatitis E is found worldwide and it is a waterborne disease which is caused the HEV (hepatitis E virus). Generally, it is occurred in areas with poor sanitation. Hepatitis E is most common in East and South Asia but also found in Middle East, Central America and africa. Hepatitis E virus is transmitted through contaminated water. About 20 million people are infected by this disease worldwide each year.
Causes of Hepatitis E
Symptoms of Hepatitis E
Preventive Measures of Hepatitis E
There are no vaccines to prevent hepatitis E. To prevent hepatitis E, the following prevention measures should be taken:
Treatment of Hepatitis E
There is no specific treatment of acute hepatitis E. In this case, you should avoid unnecessary medications. An antiviral drug, ribavirin is effective for chronic hepatitis E. In some cases, interferon is used successfully to treat hepatitis E.
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